Section 29(1)(a) of the Banking Act limits credit facilities2 granted by a bank to any one person, or group of persons under the control or influence of any one person, to 25% of its capital funds, while section 29(1)(b) limits substantial loans to 50% of total credit facilities. These sections seek to limit large risk concentrations, and hence the maximum possible loss arising from the failure of a single counterparty or group of related counterparties. However, the existing approach sets limits only on the amount of credit facilities granted by a bank. It does not capture all of a bank’s exposures to a counterparty that could lead to losses to the bank, e.g. from the diminution in value of equity investments, or from the cost of replacing off-balance sheet transactions, in the event that the counterparty fails.
The United States and the European Union (EU) economic relationship is the largest in the world—and it is growing. The modern U.S.-European economic relationship has evolved since World War II, broadening as the six-member European Community expanded into the present 27-member European Union. The ties have also become more complex and interdependent, covering
a growing number and type of trade and financial activities.
There is general agreement that the ongoing global financial crisis has produced a serious decline in the availability of trade credit along with increases in pricing. In order to better understand the current trade environment and develop actions to alleviate some of the problems associate with it, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Bankers Association for Trade and Finance (BAFT) have commissioned Flometrix to conduct a survey among banks worldwide.
Recent positive developments suggest that Iraq has made important progress towards political and economic stabilization, although the situation remains fragile and reversible. Recent months have seen a sharp decline in incidents of violence, especially in the Baghdad area, and a corresponding decrease in the rate of internal displacement of the population.
Uruguay is currently in the midst of a dual transition. First, there is an economic transition from the 2002 crisis towards a path of equitable and sustainable development, as the economy continues to recover strongly. Second, there is a political transition, as the victory of the Frente Amplio – Encuentro Progresista – Nueva Mayoría coalition in the October 2004 elections marked a new phase in the country’s political history.
Asset totals reflect internally run, single-manager hedge funds and separate accounts, including long-only funds that charge hedge-fund-style fees; they exclude funds of hedge funds, overlay accounts, funds managed by third parties, mutual funds and traditional long-only money, dynamic money market funds, assets in collateralized debt and bond obligations, private equity and venture capital.