(U//FOUO) Marine Corps Intelligence Activity Senegal Cultural Field Guide


Senegal is a diverse West African nation approximately the size of South Dakota and home to more than 36 ethnic groups and languages. Senegal’s national development has been shaped by its location between the edge of the Sahara and the Atlantic. Trans-Saharan trade brought Islam and Arab influences to Senegal through North Africa. Later, Senegal became one of the first African countries to trade with Europe through the Atlantic seaways. Today, Senegal is seen by the Senegalese as a bridge between Black African, Islamic, and European civilizations.

Marine Corps Intelligence Activity Morocco Military Cultural Study


Morocco’s military traditions are closely linked with the country’s history and are influenced by its extensive political and cultural heritage. Morocco’s history, and thus its military history, began in the Medieval Islamic period, 12 centuries before the end of the French and Spanish protectorate in 1956, which is often represented as the year Morocco became independent. Moroccans, however, consider 1956 the year the country regained its independence after 44 years of foreign rule. Although foreign rule profoundly transformed Morocco’s economy and infrastructure, Moroccans view the post-protectorate period as a reversion to independent rule by the reigning Alawi or Filali dynasties, which had held power in the country since 1660. Mohamed V presided over this independent rule and military modernization for 34 years (1927–1961). Moroccans inherited a modernized state, albeit with surviving traditional institutions, from their former European rulers, and the dynastic continuity under the protectorate ensured the prominent re-emergence of indigenous influence in many areas, including the military.

(U//FOUO) Marine Corps Intelligence Activity Morocco Cultural Field Guide


Moroccan culture uniquely combines aspects of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. It is a Muslim country with close ties to other Arab countries in the Middle East, but its proximity to Europe has given it a more Western feel. Morocco experiences many of the economic hardships seen in other African nations, such as a lack of economic diversity, high unemployment, and widespread poverty.

(U//FOUO) Marine Corps Intelligence Activity Mauritania Cultural Field Guide


Mauritania is the westernmost country in the Sahel region. Its location between Arab-influenced North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa has created some ethnic divides and tensions between people of Arab origin and the indigenous populations. In other cases, the population has become united under a common belief; nearly all Mauritanians are Muslim. Most of the country is desert, making life in Mauritania difficult. In the past, northern populations were nomadic herders and the southern populations were sedentary farmers. Many continue these lifestyles today, but desertification and droughts have severely reduced the amount of fertile land in Mauritania.This has hurt herders and farmers. Many have had to abandon their lifestyles to attempt make a living in the cities. As a result, most Mauritanian cities are overcrowded and have high unemployment rates.

UN Use of Foreign Military and Civil Defence Assets (MCDA) for Ebola Response in West Africa


The current Ebola virus disease outbreak was declared a ‘Public Health Emergency of International Concern’ by WHO on 8 August 2014. On 8 September, the UN Secretary-General activated the UN system-wide crisis framework and subsequently announced the establishment of the ‘United Nations Mission on Ebola Emergency Response’ – UNMEER. UNMEER is described as a ‘unified mission’, different from a ‘regular’ or ‘integrated’ mission, with HQ UNMEER in Accra, Ghana, and offices in each of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea.

U.S. Africa Command United Assistance Ebola Response Intelligence Summaries


A collection of recent intelligence summaries for Operation United Assistance which is being conducted by U.S. Africa Command through U.S. Army Africa. The operation began in September and provides “coordination of logistics, training, and engineering support to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in West Africa to assist in the overall U.S. Government Foreign Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief efforts to contain the spread of the Ebola Virus/Disease, as part of the international assistance effort supporting the Governments of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea.”

U.S. Africa Command United Shield Response to Ebola Operation Order


As of 15 October 2014, the Ebola virus outbreak continues to expand and has infected nearly 4,249 and killed more than 2,458 people in Liberia. Although the Government of Liberia (GoL) continues an aggressive campaign of trying to inform and educate the population, overburdened medical infrastructure and cultural practices continue to hinder containment efforts. Isolated incidents of unrest have occurred, including demonstrations outside health care clinics and attacks on health care workers. The GoL has declared a National Emergency in order to (IOT) prevent the further spread of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD).

(U//FOUO) Kansas Intelligence Fusion Center Nairobi Westgate Mall Attack Lessons Learned


On Saturday, September 21, 2013, members of Al Shabaab, a Somali based Islamic terrorist organization affiliated with the international Al Qaeda network, executed a complex terrorist attack on an upscale shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya. The attackers simultaneously entered the mall from two different entrances, shooting shoppers with assault rifles and throwing hand grenades. The terrorists remained in the mall, engaging government security forces for the next four days, resulting in a major fire and partial collapse of the mall. The Kenyan government has officially reported 72 deaths and more than 200 injured as a result of the attack. A significant number of those killed and injured were foreign citizens, including 6 U.S. citizens who were injured in the attack.

U.S. Army Africa Pamphlet: Cultural, Historical, and Natural Resource Protection During African Operations


This pamphlet is applicable to United States (US) forces conducting operations in Africa operating under the control of US Army Africa (USARAF) or applicable joint task forces (JTF). The intent of this pamphlet is to provide guidance on the protection and management of recognized cultural, historic, and natural resources that may be placed at risk due to the conduct of the full spectrum of US ground operations and associated close air/naval support operations.

UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) Torture and Deaths in Detention Report


From late 2011, the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) has recorded 27 cases of deaths in custody where there is significant information to suggest that torture was the cause, and is aware of allegations about additional cases which it has not been able to fully investigate. Eleven of the 27 cases, detailed in this report, took place in 2013, all in detention centres under the nominal authority of the Government but effectively under the authority of armed brigades.