Assessment of fluoride intake is paramount in understanding the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism specifically the prevention of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and skeletal fluorosis. The Institute of Medicine (IOM, 1997) specified Adequate Intakes (AI) of 0.01 mg/day for infants through 6 months, 0.05 mg/kg/day beyond 6 months of age, and 3 mg/day and 4 mg/day for adult women and men (respectively), to prevent dental caries. Upper limits (UL) of 0.10 mg/kg/day in children less than 8 years and 10 mg/day for those older than 8 years are recommended for prevention of dental fluorosis. Similar levels have been endorsed by the American Dental Association (ADA, 1994) and the American Dietetic Association (ADA, 2000). Fluoride works primarily via topical mechanisms to inhibit demineralization, to enhance remineralization, and to inhibit bacteria associated with tooth decay (Featherstone, 2000). Fluoride has an affinity for calcified tissues. Studies of exposure and bone mineral density, fractures and osteoporosis would benefit from a national fluoride database coupled with an intake assessment tool (Phipps, 1995; Phipps et al., 2000). Therefore, a database for fluoride is needed for epidemiologists and health researchers to estimate the intakes and to investigate the relationships between intakes and human health.
This policy manual establishes policy for the management and administration of information technologies for the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO), Information Technology Services (ITS) that supports the Farm Service Agency (FSA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), and Rural Development (RD) including Large Offices (Beltsville, Fort Collins, Fort Worth, Kansas City, Lincoln, Portland, Salt Lake, St. Louis, and Washington D.C. — hereafter referred to as “Large Offices”) and Service Centers (including State, District, Area, County, and Local Field Service Offices — hereafter referred to as “Field Offices”), and their partners.
USDA National Veterinary Stockpile Preparedness Brief from the USAHA/AAVLD Joint Meeting.
The Office of Departmental Administration (DA) Office of Security Services (OSS) Protective Operations Division (POD) is within the US. Department of Agriculture (USDA). This Privacy Impact Assessment evaluates privacy information residing on the Physical Security Access Control System (PSACS). The DA/OSS is responsible for providing physical, personal, and document security services. These POD services are provided in the USDA South Building/Whitten complex and at leased buildings in the National Capital Region (NCR).
It is the policy of the United States to safeguard the health and well-being of the American people during the 2009-H1N1 influenza pandemic by: (1) taking action to slow the spread of disease, mitigate illness, and prevent death, and (2) sustaining critical infrastructure and minimizing the impact of the pandemic on the economy and functioning of society.