- 47 pages
- For Official Use Only
- Law Enforcement Sensitive
- November 30, 2009
SEARCH OF A VEHICLE’S ELECTRONIC MEMORY: Due to the increased sophistication of automobile electronics, criminal investigators should consider establishing probable cause for a search of the automobile’s electronic memory prior to the execution of a search warrant on a suspect’s vehicle. Newer vehicles are commonly installed with Bluetooth technology which allows cellular telephones to link with the automobile and allow for hands free operation of the phone. Bluetooth technology can download or synchronize the cellular handset’s contact list to the vehicle’s electronic memory storage. The contact list/phonebook capacity varies from just over 100 to upwards of 10,000 entries according to the particular system installed. These entries can be stored and accessible even after the phone is no longer linked to the vehicle and after the ignition is disengaged. If a navigation system is also installed in the vehicle, the contact list may have addresses or GPS coordinates associated with the phone number entries. Although Bluetooth technology allows for twoway exchange of data, the Bluetooth Profile implemented in vehicle systems does not allow phonebooks downloaded from one cellular handset to be uploaded to another handset or device. Thus, agents executing a search warrant should be prepared to manually record searched entries. The current trend indicates Bluetooth technology will become more common in vehicles as a means of operating a cellular phone while driving. California, Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Washington State, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. Virgin Islands have all adopted laws banning drivers from talking on handheld cellular phones while driving, with momentum building for the passage of laws in other states. Whereas a few years ago, only high end vehicles from luxury manufacturers provided Bluetooth technology as an option, many manufacturers offer Bluetooth technology as a factory installed option on lower end models such as the Ford Focus. MSNBC reports that by 2013, approximately 30 percent of all new car sales will be purchased with handsfree features onboard. Numerous suppliers and manufacturers offer aftermarket kits to install the technology in vehicles lacking factory installation and the kits are selling in the millions. The exploitation of this feature presents investigators with a possible wealth of investigative evidence to be obtained from target’s vehicle by utilizing a search warrant to access the vehicle’s electronic memory. The search of a vehicle’s electronic systems for navigation information or telephone, address, or calendar information stored in a vehicle via a Bluetooth connection implicates the 4th Amendment. A search warrant or an exception to the search warrant requirement, such as exigent circumstances, search incident to arrest, or the vehicle exception may be required to conduct the search.
GANG INITIALS AND GANG NAMES
AB – Aryan Brotherhood: A white supremacist prison gang founded in the California prison system in the 1960s. The shamrock and 666 tattoos are associated with this gang.
ABT – Aryan Brotherhood of Texas: A white supremacist prison gang founded in Texas.
ABZ – Asian Boyz: An Asian-American street gang that originated in Southern California. They have spread to many parts of the U.S. and are reportedly one of largest Asian street gangs in the U.S.. Tiny Rascal Gangsters (TRG) is one of the key rivals of this gang.
AC – Aryan Circle: A white supremacist prison gang that has spread to many other states. AKB – Asian Killa Boyz: A Southern California street gang. ALK – Almighty Latin Kings: Founded in Chicago, Illinois, they are one of the largest Hispanic gangs in the United States. They’re also known as the Latin Kings (LK), Almighty Latin King Nation (ALKN), and Almighty Latin King and Queen Nation (ALKQN).
BA – Barrio Azteca: Founded in the 1980s, Barrio Azteca is a Hispanic prison gang active in the Southwestern United States.
BB – Border Brothers: The “Border Brothers”, a Hispanic gang, are mainly found in the California Prison system, but are slowly spreading to other systems. BD – Black Disciples: An African-American street gang founded in Chicago.
BDS – Fresno Bulldogs: A predominantly Hispanic street gang in Fresno, California. Also known as the F-14 Bulldogs.
B.E.S.T. – Barrio Eighteenth ST (Street): A violent Hispanic gang that accepts members from all ethnicities. It has spread throughout the U.S. BGF – Black Guerrilla Family: An African-American, anti-establishment, prison gang; formed in 1966, at San Quentin State Prison in California.
BHS – Ben Hill Squad: An Atlanta, GA area street gang BP – Brown Pride: A Mexican-American street gang found in multiple locations, including California and Arizona. BP13 and BPX3 are a couple of other tags associated with this gang.
BPS – Black P. Stones: An African-American gang founded in Chicago in the mid-20th century. Originally called Blackstone Rangers, they are also known as the Black P. Stone Nation (BPSN).
BS – Bomb Squad: An Atlanta, GA area street gang BSL – Brown Side Locos: A Hispanic street gang that is active in California and Georgia.
BTK – Born To Kill: A Vietnamese-American street gang founded in New York in the 1980s.
D&D – Down and Dirty: An Atlanta, GA area street gang D4L – Down 4 Life: An Atlanta, GA area street gang DFB – Dem Franchise Boyz: An Atlanta, GA area street gang DMI – Dead Man Incorporated: A Caucasian prison/street gang founded in the Maryland prison system in the late 1990s.
DP – Da Posse: An Atlanta, GA area street gang DSB – Down South Boys (Down South Boyz): A Florida street gang.
EPT – El Paso Tangos (Tango Blast): A Texas gang comprised primarily of Hispanics.
4CH – Four Corner Hustlers: An African-American street gang founded in Chicago, Illinois in the late 1960s.
F13 – Florencia 13: One of the largest Hispanic gangs in Southern California.
FSC – Fair Street Crips: An Atlanta, GA area street gang FTRA – Freight Train Riders of America: A gang of individuals (hobos) who travel by rail boxcar. They are very active in the Northwest United States. Crimes include robbery and murder.
G-27 – The G-27: Formed in the Puerto Rico prison system. Members are referred to as “Insectos.”
GB – Gutta Boyz: An Atlanta, GA area street gang GD – Gangster Disciples: An African-American street/prison gang founded in Chicago, Illinois. They have spread to numerous other states throughout the United States.
GKB – Gangsta Killer Bloods (Gangster Killa Bloods): A predominantly African-American street gang
GMB – Get Money Boyz: An Atlanta, GA area street gang GMC – Get Money Crew: An Atlanta, GA area street gang GS – Goone Squad: An Atlanta, GA area street gang GSC – Grape Street Crips: A Southern California street gang.
GTO – GTO Bad Boyz: An Atlanta, GA area street gang GTSN – Gangster Two Six Nation: An Atlanta, GA area street gang HPL – Hermanos de Pistoleros Latinos: A Hispanic prison gang founded in the Texas prison system in the late 1980s; also known as Hermandad de Pistoleros Latinos.
HS – Hit Squad: An Atlanta, GA area street gang HVK – Hidden Valley Kings: An African-American gang founded in Charlotte, North Carolina’s in the 1990s.
IG – Imperial Gangsters: An Atlanta, GA area street gang ISC – Insane Spanish Cobras: A Hispanic street gang founded in Chicago, IL
IVL – Insane Vice Lords: A Chicago African-American street gang.
LC – Latin Counts: A Latino street gang founded in Chicago, Illinois
LGF – La Gran Familia: A Hispanic gang alliance.
LHS – Lady Hit Squad: An Atlanta, GA area street gang LRZ – La Raza (The race): A Hispanic gang. MC – Mickey Cobras: An African-American gang founded in Chicago, Illinois.
MDC – Most Dangerous Click: An Atlanta, GA area street gang MLD – Maniac Latin Disciples: A large, Hispanic street gang founded in Chicago, Illinois.
MOB – Men Over Bitches: A North Carolina street gang.
MOB – Member Of Bloods: An African-American street gang. MOB – My Only Brothers: An African-American street gang in California.
MS – Murder Squad: An Atlanta, GA area street gang MS-13 – Mara Salvatrucha: A transnational Hispanic gang that has spread to at least 42 states and approximately nine countries. They are described as America’s most dangerous gang.
MW – Mandingo Warriors: An African-American prison gang founded in Texas in 1984. NBCC – Nutty Blocc Compton Crips: A Southern California street gang. NF – Nuestra Familia: A predominantly Hispanic prison gang with ties to the Norteños. The gang that was founded in the California prison system in the 1960s. Their main rival is the Mexican Mafia. In some areas they are now established on the streets.
NLR – Nazi Low Riders: A white supremacist gang founded in Southern California.
NS – Northern Structure: Believed to be a spin-off prison gang of La Nuestra Familia
PBS – Playboy Surenos: A predominantly Hispanic street gang found in multiple locations across the country. PBS 13, and PBS X3 are a couple of other tags associated with this gang.
RAC – Raymond Ave. Crips: A California African-American street gang.
SB – Soldier Boyz: An Atlanta, GA area street gang SC – Spanish Cobras: A Hispanic street gang founded in Chicago, Illinois. SCR – Simon City Royals: A predominantly Caucasian street gang founded in Chicago, Illinois.
SNM – Syndicato Nuevo Mexico (New Mexico Syndicate): The SNM is considered to be the most violent and most powerful of all of the Security Threat Groups within the New Mexico Department of Corrections.
SSC – South Side Crips: An Atlanta, GA area street gang SUR 13 – Surenos – (Spanish – Sur means south; Sureños means southerner): Originated in Southern California as a street gang but has found its way into the prison system and has spread throughout many parts of the United States. Sureños are considered to be the soldiers for the Mexican Mafia prison gang. Blue is the gang’s traditional color. The number 13 associates them with the Mexican Mafia – the letter M is the thirteenth letter of the alphabet. They may also use XIII or X3.
3C – Triple Cross: An Atlanta, GA area street gang
3Ni – Trinitarios: Trinitarios started in New York City as a prison gang within the NY City Dept of Corrections and then the State DOC, during the early 1990s. TB – Tango Blast: A street/prison gang based in Texas. TM – Texas Mafia: A predominantly Caucasian gang founded in the Texas prison system in the early 1980s. TRG – Tiny Rascal Gangsters: An Asian-American gang, also known as the Tiny Rascal Gang or the Tiny Rascals.
TS – Texas Syndicate: A prison gang, also known as Syndicato Tejano, was founded in the early 1970s in the California prison system. Their gang members are primarily Mexican-American. UBN – United Blood Nation: Originated about 1993 at Rikers Island prison in New York. The UBN is now found in many parts of the east coast of the East Coast of the United States.
VL – Vatos Locos: A west coast street gang that has spread eastward and may be found in North Carolina, Georgia, and Maryland.
VL – Vice Lords: A large, mostly, African-American gang street/prison founded in Chicago that now has a national presence. They are also known as the Vice Lord Nation (VLN), Almighty Vice Lord Nation (AVLN), and Conservative Vice Lord Nation (CVLN).
WBP – Wetback Power: A Mexican-American street gang. Also commonly called Sinaloa Cowboys.
WBC – White Boys Click: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YBB – Young Block Boyz: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YBG – Young Block Girls: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YC – Young Choppers: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YD – Young Diplomats: An Atlanta, GA area street gang
YDC – Young Dangerous Click: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YGC – Young Gunna Crew: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YM – Young Mafia: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YM – Young Money: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YP – Young Posse: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YPN – Young Paid Niggaz: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YS – Young Squad, Atlanta: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YSH – Young Squad Hoes: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YSss – Young Squad Stay Strap: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YSM – Young Squad Mafia: An Atlanta, GA area street gang YT – Young Team: An Atlanta, GA area street gang