The Strait of Hormuz is the narrow waterway that allows maritime access into and out of the Persian Gulf from the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Sea. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has identified the Strait of Hormuz as one of six critical chokepoints in the global distribution and trade of oil. The concentration of valuable maritime traffic passing through such a relatively small area makes the Strait of Hormuz a strategic area for the targeting of maritime objectives by groups or nations looking to threaten or disrupt global trade. Iran, located on the north bank of the strait, has made repeated threats to strangle maritime traffic passing through the strait in retaliation for any strike against its nuclear program. In addition, al-Qaeda has reportedly been planning strikes at critical maritime chokepoints over the past decade, including the Strait of Hormuz. Al-Qaeda continues to plan maritime attacks, copying successful tactics from other militant groups such as the LTTE. The Strait of Hormuz would be an ideal target for al-Qaeda’s maritime campaign, either through the use of WBIEDs or conventional maritime weapons.
The IED Effects Simulator (IEDES) kit is a Training Aids Device that will assist the Army in training the joint and individual service on operational support tasks, conditions, and standards needed to achieve U.S. Military IED objectives. The IEDES is configured to simulate a Small, Medium, Large, and Extra Large explosive signature. The IEDES is designed to train key tasks of Explosive Hazards (EHs) defeat, to predict, prevent, detect, classify, neutralize, mark, report and record EH and to protect personnel, equipment and facilities from EH effects.
(U//FOUO) Joint Training Counter-IED Operations Integration Center Brief, May 3, 2010.
(U//FOUO) Army Electronic Warfare Brief, May 3, 2010.
Internationally, suicide bombings can be grouped into three basic categories of devices:
Type I – Bomber Actuated IEDs Carried in Bag, Box or Other Object
Type II – Bomber Actuated IED Worn Under or as Part of Clothing of Bomber
Type III – Bomber Actuated IED Concealed in Vehicle
Clear Evacuate an area of approx 300 meter
• Evacuate the area as quickly as possible.
• Move people away from the device and not past it.
• Mark your location and note the direction and distance to the device. Move to a minimum distance of 200 meters from the suspect item.
• The On-Scene Commander will make the decision on how large an area to clear. The below danger areas are from ISAF SOP 10370:
• 200 meters – small device/postal bomb
• 300 meters – car bomb
• 600 meters – large device e.g. truck bomb. If an open area, then increase to 1000m.
• Identify and establish an Incident Control Point which must always be searched.
• Make maximum use of hard cover, and ensure personnel are out of the direct Line of Site (LOS) from the suspect area to cleared positions. If cover cannot be obtained, maximize distance from the device.
All personnel are to be moved away from the suspect item. Mark your location and note the direction and distance to the device. Move to a minimum distance of 300 meters from the suspect item. The Convoy Commander or Patrol Leader at the scene makes the decision on how large an area to clear based on METT-TC. Detonation may be imminent if the device was armed before being located. Personnel should make maximum use of hard cover, ensuring they are out of the direct Line of Site (LOS) from the suspect area to cleared positions. If cover cannot be obtained, maximize distance from the device.
• Enemy will focus on irregular warfare using asymmetric means to attack and influence advanced nations
• Conventional, unconventional, lethal, non-lethal, state supported, non-state, hybrid organizations, extremism… produce a very complex environment