It seemed as if war had been declared on cops. First a sniper in Dallas and then an active shooter in Baton Rouge. “It has been a tough week physically and emotionally,” said Senior Corporal Trevor Perez, one of a couple dozen Dallas police officers and honor guard members to make the seven-hour trip to Baton Rouge to attend the funerals of Baton Rouge police officers, in this case that of Matthew Gerald. All the more tough because the corporal and his colleagues had just recently paid their respects at nearly a dozen similar funerals back in Texas.
So-called sovereign citizens are anti-government extremists who reject the notion of U.S. citizenship. They claim to follow only God’s laws and the amendments found in the original Bill of Rights. Sovereign citizens believe they are exempt from all other responsibilities associated with being a U.S. citizen, such as paying taxes, possessing a driver’s license, registering vehicles, or holding a Social Security card. In addition, they do not generally recognize Federal or State government authority or laws. Sovereign citizen groups are known for presenting fraudulent IDs, license plates, tax-exemption cards, passports, and birth certificates, among others. Other activity includes firearms violations, redemption schemes, and documents that falsely claim diplomatic and law enforcement privileges.
With the fundamental issues of organized crime deeply integrated in present-day law enforcement, investigators are better equipped for emerging and unfamiliar types of organized crime, more specifically, Asian organized crime. The investigation into Asian criminal groups is similar to that of other organized groups. Basic investigative techniques of organized crime are applicable to Asian crime groups; however, the degree of cultural variance among people of Asian decent and Americans makes the investigation of Asian criminal groups, by American law enforcement, a challenging task.
Over the past two decades, a terrorist group known as Jamaat ul-Fuqra, or “Community of the Impoverished,” has been linked to multiple murders, bombings, and various other felonies throughout the United States and Canada. In 1980, a Pakistani cleric named Sheikh Mubarak Ali Gilani began preaching against Western culture at a Muslim mosque in Brooklyn, NY. He promoted Islam as the path to a better life and called for fighters to join his holy war against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.
ANALYSIS of terrorist preparations for past attacks overseas and in the United States suggests that preoperational indicators may be present in the days or weeks prior to an attack. Indicators may point to possible terrorist planning. Alone, an indicator can result from legitimate commercial activity or criminal activity not related to terrorism; however, multiple indicators can suggest a terrorist threat.
Intelligence operations have been reviewed, studied, and slowly but steadily transformed. Most efforts have focused on reorganizing intelligence infrastructures at the federal level; however, corresponding efforts have been made to enhance state and local law enforcement intelligence operations. Such enhancements make it possible for state and local law enforcement agencies to play a role in homeland security. Perhaps more important, improvements to intelligence operations help local law enforcement respond to “traditional” crimes more effectively.
Historically, Hispanic gangs north of the dividing line have claimed allegiance to the Nortenos and those to the south claimed allegiance to the Surenos. All California Hispanic criminal street gangs claim allegiance to the Nortenos or Surenos, with the exception of the Fresno Bulldogs. Whether it’s on the streets or in the correctional facilities, the Fresno Bulldogs function independently and do not align themselves with Nortenos or Surenos. The Fresno Bulldogs are a unique California based gang that has the power, strength and a large enough membership to stand on its own and remain free from the politics of the Nortenos and Surenos. All other Hispanic criminal street gangs are forced to choose a side whether they want to join in or not.