Former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz formally launched Aaj News Television in Karachi on 21 May 2005 (www.dawn.com/2005/05/22/top3.htm, website of leading mainstream English daily Karachi Dawn, 22 May 2005). According to its website (www.aaj.tv), it has fully equipped bureaus in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad, making Aaj the first private channel to broadcast from inside Pakistan. Aaj also has “an Earth Station in Pakistan that broadcasts directly to the AsiaSat satellite with a footprint of over 60 countries.” Aaj offers “well defined programming blocks” of news, current affairs, infotainment, and entertainment. It has collaboration agreements with “partner news sources in more than 100 countries.”
On May 31, 2010, Israeli soldiers boarded six humanitarian aid ships that were headed towards the Gaza Strip, carrying thousands of tons of supplies as well as hundreds of pro-Palestinian activists. The convoy, which was organized by the ‘Free Gaza Movement’, was intercepted by Israeli naval forces while attempting Israel and Gaza Humanitarian Convoy to break the naval blockade off the Gaza Stip. There were more than 10 people killed and several injured, including Israeli soldiers, during this incident. Statements regarding the events have differed greatly. The pro-Palestinian activists are reporting that the Israeli soldiers boarded the ship with no warning and began shooting sleeping civilians as soon as their feet hit the deck. Conversely, the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement advising that Israeli naval forces boarded the ships after issuing several warnings that were ignored. Once on the ships, Israeli soldiers were attacked by the activists with live fire as well as other weapons such as knives and clubs.
The following scheduled protests are a part of “Seize BP Week of Action”, which are demonstrations that are being held throughout the country between 3 June and 10 June 2010. The purpose of the protests is to convince the United States government to seize BP’s assets and to “ensure justice” for all of the devastation that has been caused in the Gulf of Mexico from the disaster of the Deepwater Horizon.
Based on the current observed levels of participation on social network sites (SNS) in Pakistan and the country’s past experience with street protest movements during the 2007 State of Emergency and 2009 lawyers Long March, it is possible that Internet users could leverage such sites to organize grassroots protest movements, but the intensity of such efforts would likely be limited by several factors.
December 20, 2010 in Federal Bureau of Investigation
The FBI has identified a trend of suspicious purchases or attempted purchases of large amounts of silver nitrate and potassium iodide for unknown purposes by individuals masquerading as legitimate businesses. Although silver nitrate could be used in the synthesis of primary explosive material, neither chemical is associated with any known chemical or biological weapon production. It is unknown if the purchases of these chemicals are being used for non-legitimate purposes
Authoritative PRC media reports of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s live online appearances illustrate authorities’ expanding use of the Internet to set and control policy discourse in Chinese-language virtual space. They also suggest ongoing efforts to manage leaders’ images and portray them as accessible and soliciting online public opinion. While some apparent missteps suggest a cautious, evolving approach to interactive Internet media in relation to top leaders, reported leadership statements indicate sustained attention to the goal of incorporating new technologies into the propaganda system.
This report surveys 10 prominent PRC commentators on military affairs who appear to write blogs hosted on PRC and PRC-owned Hong Kong websites. All of these commentators appear to maintain an online presence using these blogs to promote their viewpoints. Commentators cover such topics as PRC military strategy, air defense, navy issues, army aviation, information technology, defense spending, foreign military developments, military-to-military relations, political education, military history, training, and exercises. These blogs appear on China’s authoritative government websites, popular PRC commercial portal sites, and independent Hong Kong news websites.
Social broadcasting — posting or sending audio and video content to members of a social network — allows people to share multimedia material using Internet-based technologies. In Germany, OSC has observed that major political parties — hesitant to campaign on the Internet for fear of losing control over their messages — have nevertheless begun to use Internet social networks and video portals as a communication tool. New smaller parties without an established financial or voter base also appear to prioritize Internet-based campaigning. For example, Germany’s Pirate Party won a better-than-expected 2% in the 2009 national election primarily through making use of Internet-based communications.
Laos has 31 state-run radio stations and one national television network with 16 stations. Lao broadcasters compete with more developed Thailand, whose stations can reach all of Laos (“Laos to Modernize its Media,” www.voanews.com). Newspaper and magazine circulation is limited. Many of the rural areas, where 85% of Laotians live (Lao News Agency, www.kpl.net.la), are not easily accessible by road, and a relatively low literacy rate of 68.7% (World Factbook) also limits readership.
Widespread advanced use of mobile phones in Japan has not come about serendipitously: the Japanese have taken to their cell phones because of the country’s highly advanced mobile phone technology and network infrastructure. Additionally, the government’s ambitious strategic plan to make Japan the most advanced “e-nation” in the world has boosted the industry, created an ideal environment for promoting mobile phone usage beyond simple person-toperson calling, and spurred domestic demand for high-tech handsets.
While the Google incident and Secretary Clinton’s speech spurred online discussion on the subject of “Internet freedom” in China, reaction differed on two observed popular sites. Public comments in response to Secretary Clinton’s speech on a popular news website subject to state censorship were consistent with official media reaction, emphasizing nationalistic resistance to alleged US “Internet hegemony.” In contrast, discussion on a popular social networking site noted the irony in China’s official response to Clinton’s speech, questioning Beijing’s claims to have an “open” Internet.
The blogs selected and profiled in this guide are, at the time of this report, among the most well-known German-language political blogs and were selected for inclusion based on an assessment of several indicators, which are detailed in the methodology statement. The blogs profiled here are among Germany’s most influential independent political blogs and therefore have some potential to shape public opinion and debate on political issues in Germany. However, it should be noted that, given the challenges in establishing linkage between online content and realworld interactions and events, the degree of influence of blogs is difficult to quantify.
As the Moroccan regime has cracked down recently on traditional media, the increased availability of high-speed Internet and Internet-enabled mobile devices has allowed Moroccans to take otherwise unreportable stories and grievances online. So far, the government has been relatively hands-off with regard to Internet content, though a few cases directly involving the royal family have resulted in arrests and trials. As social media use becomes more widespread and available within Morocco, the monarchy risks reaching a tipping point beyond which only draconian filtering would enable it to control the media message, a step it seems unlikely to take given its sensitivities regarding its international image.
Low literacy (just over 60% of the population), poverty, poor infrastructure, and de facto government control of broadcast media shape the Cambodian media environment. The Constitution guarantees “freedom of expression, press, publication and assembly,” but human rights observers say journalists face intimidation. The country’s most important and popular television stations are state-run Cambodian National Television (TVK) and Cambodia Television Network (CTN), owned by Cambodian-Australian businessman Kit Meng, a strong supporter of Prime Minister Hun Sen.
Popular Saudi blogger Fu’ad al-Farhan has returned to blogging after over two years of silence following his imprisonment in 2007. On 12 May, he started a blog on a new domain located at www.alfarhan.ws. Al-Farhan — who holds a degree from a US university, writes from within Saudi Arabia, and is an outspoken proponent of political reform in the Kingdom — began with a post titled “Blogging… the Best Option,” which explores the pros and cons of blogging and social networking. The blog discusses the prospects for reform and freedom of expression in Saudi Arabia and encourages debate on related issues. Al-Farhan’s posts have evoked lively responses from Saudi readers, suggesting that his blog resonates with those Saudis who are eager to exchange views on a variety of sensitive political and social issues. Al-Farhan takes an optimistic view of King Abdallah’s reform efforts, prompting some other bloggers to call him unrealistic.
Television dominates the Philippines’ mostly privately owned and market-oriented media, overtaking radio over the past decade. Newspapers rank third, but Internet usage is on the rise. Violence against broadcast journalists has marred the country’s claim to media freedom. Of the seven major TV networks, three are government-owned, but only one — NBN — is under the government’s operational control. NBN promotes official views but has lost audience share to private TV stations ABS-CBN and GMA, which sensationalize news and entertainment programs. TV is mostly in Tagalog and English. Over 150 radio networks broadcast in the Philippines. Manila Broadcasting Company is the largest with over 100 radio stations nationwide. Philippine Broadcasting Service, the only government-owned radio network, has over 30 stations. Most major networks are based in Manila, but provincial affiliates operate independently due to differences in urban-provincial needs. With much programming in local languages, radio tends to promote regionalism.
The relatively wide media freedom experienced in Kyrgyzstan since the 2005 Tulip revolution narrowed this year. This coincided with local elections and associated internal political turmoil. Laws restricting free and independent media remain in force from previous years. Television continues to dominate the media landscape, with 97 percent of Kyrgyz speakers reporting they use the medium on a weekly basis for news and information. Friends and family are the next-most-used source, with 89 percent of Kyrgyz speakers relying on them weekly for news and information. The use of radio for news and information dropped (from 46 percent in 2006 and 2007 to 40 percent in 2008). Newspapers are now used as often as radio (41 percent of Kyrgyz speakers surveyed reporting using this platform on a weekly basis). Internet use inched up among Kyrgyz speakers from 5 percent in 2006 to 6 percent in 2008. Although the change in internet use is not statistically significant, the use of SMS for news and information about current events is something to watch: whereas just over one-quarter (27 percent) of respondents reported using SMS as an information source weekly in 2007, that figure increased to one-third (34 percent) of Kyrgyz speakers in 2008.
IrExpert.ir is a Persian-language social networking site established as a forum for Iranian professionals and experts around the world. Similar in style to the popular international business social networking site Linkedin, IrExpert.ir serves as a platform for users to exchange ideas, foster professional relationships, connect with other colleagues, share information, and seekprofessional opportunities. Only limited information is available on the open social networking site, as the majority of content is retained in the password protected portal that can only be accessed by members. This report is based only on the information available to nonmembers.
All Vietnamese media outlets are state-owned and subject to strict party and state control, and journalists continue to be intimidated and imprisoned for critical commentary and zealous reporting. In response to market reforms, however, some segments of the media have begun to air sensitive issues such as political corruption, at least by lower- and mid-ranking officials. Internet use is increasing and provides a forum for political debate between dissident bloggers and official censors.
President Chavez is moving to win support among younger voters — who represent about a third of the electorate — amid worsening economic conditions that may erode the showing of his United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) in September legislative elections among traditionally pro-Chavez voters. Chavez has portrayed several victories by younger challengers over incumbents in the 2 May PSUV primaries as evidence of the party’s commitment to youth, in contrast with what he portrays as dismissive treatment by the opposition. He also is using popular Internet platforms to engage youth directly as the government targets them with new media initiatives.
The number of Brazilians using the Internet has increased dramatically since 2000. Internet access remains predominantly in developed, urban areas, where Internet cafes — frequented mainly by Brazilians from lower socioeconomic groups — “connect” nearly half of all users. Brazilian users most frequently access social media, especially social networking sites (SNS) like Orkut, a Google-owned site comparable to Facebook, and Twitter. Facebook has tried to challenge Orkut’s market dominance, with mixed results. Blogging is also a popular form of Internet communication, while YouTube is the most widely used video website.
Thai press has a high level of freedom and does not hesitate to criticize government leaders, but most broadcasters are under state control. Internet use is increasing and provides a forum for political debate; it is, however, subject to state censorship, particularly of content that is seen as pornographic or offensive to Thailand’s widely respected royal family. Television has by far the largest audience, but Thais tend to rely on newspapers for news.
Widely regarded as the most connected country in the world, South Korea has a system of government regulations over Internet use that are designed to curb “general cyber crimes” but that also limit Internet freedom. The issue of Internet freedom gained attention online following the Lee Myung-bak administration’s handling of two high-profile incidents — in 2008 related to the protest against US beef imports and in 2009 over the arrest of a prominent Internet-based critic. Aside from interest related to these two issues, netizens, for the most part, do not appear concerned over the issue. If Seoul implements new regulations in response to continued growth in cyber crimes or new technologies, such as smartphones, netizens would likely oppose them only if they go beyond existing laws or impose significant inconveniences.