Global Situation. Influenza is an acute viral disease of the respiratory tract caused by influenza viruses A, B or C. These A, B and C viruses are antigenically distinct and there is no cross immunity between them. While all three influenza viruses may affect humans, in lower animals and birds, influenza A viruses are of primary concern.
The Commonwealth of Virginia’s Pandemic Influenza Plan addresses the Commonwealth’s response to and recovery from a pandemic influenza in a comprehensive and coordinated manner to ensure essential services across all sectors of state government can be maintained throughout the event period, which may last as long as 18-24 months. The Virginia Department of Health (VDH) developed an Influenza Pandemic Plan (Health Component) in 2002, which was subsequently updated in 2006 and 2007.
A flu pandemic is a worldwide epidemic of an influenza virus. As such, the United States’ response to a flu pandemic would have both international and domestic components. Additionally, the domestic response effort would include contributions from every governmental level (local, state, tribal, and federal), non-governmental organizations, and the private sector.
•Occurs mostly during fall/winter in U.S.
•Spread by air-borne droplets
•Viral shedding begins before symptoms start and may continue after symptoms begin to resolve
•Symptoms –fever, dry cough, aches and pains, malaise, runny nose
•Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are extremely rare
•Symptoms may last 5-7 days in healthy individuals
On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) raised the worldwide pandemic alert level to Phase 6 in response to the ongoing global spread of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus.
• January 2007 –“Novel influenza A” made a Nationally Notifiable Disease but CSTE –part of pandemic preparedness efforts
• RT-PCR for influenza capabilities developed by public health labs in U.S.
• Increasing numbers of swine influenza infections in humans being detected from improved surveillance
• Increasing efforts at states, CDC, and USDA to investigate human cases of swine influenza
On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) raised the worldwide pandemic alert level to Phase 6 in response to the ongoing global spread of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus. A Phase 6 designation indicates that a global pandemic is underway. More than 70 countries are now reporting cases of human infection with novel H1N1 flu.
This Exercise Plan (EXPLAN) is designed to aid exercise planners in the design and implementation of an effective exercise. An EXPLAN also enables exercise participants to understand their roles and responsibilities in exercise planning, execution, and evaluation. This EXPLAN was produced by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) Emergency Preparedness and Response Division (EPRD) with input, advice, and assistance from public health regional staff in all nine of the Colorado All-Hazards Emergency Management Regions.
The Denver Sheriff Department operational mission is to ensure a safe environment for employees, the public and inmates in our custody during this event. Our goals will be to:
* Limit the number of illnesses and deaths within our facilities and community
* Preserve continuity of essential government function
* Minimize fiscal impact on the City and County of Denver
The purpose of this Section is to describe preparedness efforts and response actions in providing State assistance and coordinating local resources in modalities for mitigating transmission of PI; present the Federal concept of a pandemic severity index; set forth Federal parameters for early, targeted, layered use of non-pharmaceutical interventions; provide MSDH consensus statements on isolation and treatment of ill persons, and quarantine of household contacts of ill individuals.
The outbreak is affecting adults and spreading through human-to-human transmissions, which is atypical as influenza typically targets young children and elderly individuals, and human contraction of swine influenza is normally associated with close contact with pigs.
Leadership roles and responsibilities for an influenza pandemic need to be clarified, tested, and exercised, and existing coordination mechanisms, such as critical infrastructure coordinating councils, could be better utilized to address challenges in coordination between the federal, state, and local governments and the private sector in preparing for a pandemic.
– novel 2009-H1N1 Declarations
• WHO: Pandemic Phase 6(11 JUN 2009 1600 EDT)
• USG: Public Health Emergency declared (26 Apr 2009)
• HHS: Downgraded to Phase 1 Awareness (9 May 2009)
Only hospitalizations and deaths of cases will be reported as of 23 July 2009.
Since 2004, HHS has awarded nine contracts using its Special Reserve Fund (Fund) purchasing authority under the BioShield Act to procure countermeasures that address anthrax, botulism, smallpox, and radiation poisoning. HHS may procure countermeasures that are approved by the Food and Drug Administration and ones that are unapproved, but are within 8 years of approval.
Novel 2009-H1 N1 Declarations
* WHO: Pandemic Phase 6(11 JUN 2009 1600 EDT)
* Outbreaks in at least one country in > two WHO regions
* USG: Public Health Emergency declared (26 Apr 2009)
* HHS: Downgraded to Phase 1 Awareness (9 May 2009)
The Surgeon General, with the approval of the Secretary, is authorized to make and enforce such regulations as in his judgment are necessary to prevent the introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases from foreign countries into the States or possessions, or from one State or possession into any other State or possession. For purposes of carrying out and enforcing such regulations, the Surgeon General may provide for such inspection, fumigation, disinfection, sanitation, pest extermination, destruction of animals or articles found to be so infected or contaminated as to be sources of dangerous infection to human beings, and other measures, as in his judgment may be necessary.
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 361(b) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 264(b)), it is hereby ordered as follows Based upon the recommendation of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Surgeon General, and for the purpose set forth in section 1 of Executive Order 13295 of April 4, 2003, section 1 of such order is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new subsection: (c) Influenza caused by novel or reemergent influenza viruses that are causing, or have the potential to cause, a pandemic.
As of Monday, 04 May 09, 698 schools in 33 States were closed due to confirmed and probable cases of H1N1 Flu. The closures impacted over 358,220 students and 20,684 teachers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Reports 403 confirmed cases of H1N1 Flu in 38 States; 702 probable cases of H1N1 Flu in 41 States and the District of Columbia. Number of deaths remains at 1 (Texas). A state-by-state breakdown is listed in Table 1.
This product characterizes the risk of the currently circulating new H1N1 influenza virus to U.S. forces. It is written primarily for the use of military commanders, medical officers, and operational planners.
Recent involvement by the U.S. military with hurricane relief and comments by the President on expanding the DOD’s role in disaster relief indicates increased missions for an already stretched military. The next national disaster facing the U.S. could be an influenza pandemic. The bird flu virus H5N1 currently threatening Asia and Europe can potentially mutate into a deadly human influenza pandemic with global consequences. The last major flu pandemic in 1918 killed 50 million people worldwide and 600,000 in the U.S. alone. The United States is not prepared for a human pandemic and the military will have a significant role in any national response. While some departmental level planning has been accomplished recently, interdepartmental coordination and clear identification of the lead federal agency is still lacking. This project explains possible effects of a pandemic on the U.S. and current responsibilities of federal departments involved in disaster relief. Analysis is presented on the evolving role the DOD plays should this event become reality and finally recommends preparations that should be accomplished to prepare the nation for this very real threat. An ad-hoc approach to a pandemic will have severe negative and far reaching affects on our nation and must be avoided.
This HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan provides a blueprint from which to prepare for the challenges that lie ahead of us. Being prepared and responding effectively involves everyone: individuals, communities, businesses, States, Federal agencies, international countries and organizations. Here at home, we can use this Plan to create a seamless preparedness network where we are all working together for the benefit of the American people.